Jalandhar – A city of Basties, Kots & Gates
The town as it grew up to 1947 had the characteristic of its own. It had 12 kots, 12 gates and 12 bastis. The Kots were predominantly Hindu while bastis were mostly Muslims. The kots, which also mean Mohallas. Each Kot had its own gate. Only a few of these basties, Kots and gates have so far survived. Jalandhar a town of antiquity, and a seat of government several times in the past, regained its lost glory of ancient times in 1947 when following the pa
rtition it was made the administrative headquarter of Punjab but lost too soon when the administrative offices were shifted first to Shimla and finally to Chandigarh.
|Basti Danishmandan, originally Ibrahimpur, founded by Ansari Sheikhs from Kani Kuram in A.D.1606||Kot Kishan Chand||Mai Hiran Gate|
|Basti Sheikh Darvesh, popularly called Basti Sheikh, originally Surajabad, founded by Sheikh Darvesh and Ansari Sheikh from Kani Kuram in A.D.1614||Kot Lakhpat Rai, earlier known as Kot Daulat Khan||Balmiki Gate|
|Basti Guzan, founded in the reign of Shah Jahan by Baraki Pathans of the Ghuz section, discipline of Sheikh Darvesh. They first settled in Jalandhar, then in Basti Sheikh. Subsequently, they purchase lands from Lodhi Afghans, Saiyads and Sheikhs, and built a bazar of their own||Kot Sadat Khan||Neela Mahal Gate|
|Basti Bawa Khel, originally called Babapur, was founded in A.D. 1620-21 by Baraki Pathans of the Baba Khel section||Kot Achhi||Jaura Gate|
|Basti Pirdad is an offshoot of Basti Baba Khel||Kot Chimbian||Khingran Gate|
|Basti Shah Kuli and Basti Shah Ibrahim are also Baraki settlements of Shah Jahan’s reign||Kot Pakshian||Saidan Gate|
|Basti Mithu Sahib appears to have been founded a little later than Basti Sheikh Darvesh by Mian Mithu Sahib, a Khalil Mattezai Pathan from the neighbourhood of Peshawar||Kot Bahadur Khan||Phagwara Gate|
|Basti Nau,adjoining Basti Shah Kulli, was founded after the Sikh conquest of the region in 1759||Kot Mohammad Amin now known as Shivraj Garh||Sheetla Gate|
|Kot Sadiq||Khodian Gate|
|Kot Badal Khan||Dehalvi Gate|
|Kot Fazal Karim||Shah Kuli Gate|
|Kot Asman Khan||Lahore Gate|
An ancient monument in the City is the temple of Vrinda, wife of Jalandhara, in the Kot Kishan Chand locality. It is now also known as Tulsi Mandir. On one side of the temple is a tank which is said to have been the bathing place of the demon Jalandhara.
At some distance is the temple of Gupha, with the image of Annapurna, the goddess of plenty, installed in it. Also nearby lies the Brahm Kund and some temples dedicated to Shiva.
Near the Balmiki gate is the Sheetla Mandir, said to be as old as the City of Jalandhar. Within its premises are also two small old temples of Hanuman and Shiva.
Shiv Mandir : Situated at Gur Mandi, Shiv Mandir is reputed to have been built by a Nawab of Sultanpur Lodhi near Masjid Imam Nasar.
The old Devi Talab has been renovated and, in its centre, a new temple has been built. An old temple of goddess Kali also stands by the side of the Devi Talab.
Jalandhar Cantt Gate
Jalandhar Cantonment is one of the oldest cantonments in India, the construction of which was started in 1848 after the first Anglo-Sikh War, when the British settled in Northern India. The original scope of this cantonment was limited to troops to quell disturbances from adjoining States for the maintenance of peace and order. The departure of British from India and subsequent partition of the country changed the complexion of the Cantonment. It has gained tremendous importance on account of its nearness to the border with Pakistan. The Cantonment is located between latitude 30 degree 18′ and longitude 75 degree 37′ on the South West and at a distance of 2 Km from Cantonment Railway Station and 5 Km from City Railway Station. It is situated beside Grand Trunk Road at a distance of 89 Km from Amritsar and 371 Km from Delhi. It covers an area of 5.87 sq.miles. It is on Amritsar-Delhi Broad Guage Main Line. A Class-I airfield at Adampur is situated at a distance of 19Km. The airfield is linked with Jalandhar Cantonment by rail and road.
Jalandhar Cantonment has traditionally housed Jalandhar Garrison. Its history dates back to 1865 when it was raised as Jalandhar Garrison by Colonel JN Bishop. In 1904 it was redesignated as Jalandhar Brigade under command of Maj Gen JAH Pollock, CB. Brig Gen REH Dyer of the notorious Jalianwala Bagh episode commanded it from 1917 to 1919. The first Indian Commander was Brig Lakwinder Singh, MBE who took over from Brig RCB Bristow, OBE in 1947.
The total area of this cantonment is 1521 hectares including civil area as per 2001 census, the total population is 40521.
There are two Government Hospitals. The Cantonment General Hospital was erected by all ranks of XXIX Punjabis in memory of those of this Regiment killed during the First World War. The Military Hospital is one of the biggest in the State.
Jalandhar is known as the town of sports. Sports materials manufactured in Jalandhar are exported to various countries. The neighboring village of Sansarpur is known as the Nursery of Hockey Players. The Cantonment is proud of producing maximum number of hockey players from Cantonment Board Schools. Sarvshri Balbir Singh, Gurdev Singh, Tarsem Singh, Harbinder Singh, Lt Col Hari Prasad Singh Kaushik and Ajit Pal Singh, all Olympians are products of these Schools.
Hall of Prayer
There used to be a Hall of Prayers where people from all religions used to assemble and offer prayers. The building is non existant now having outlived its life. However, a small concrete column with Ashoka Emblem on top, still signifies the existence of the Hall on the Southern end of the cantonment.
King George’s Royal Military School
There is one of the oldest buildings of Jalandhar which was being used for school purposes. His Royal Highness Prince of Wales KBMC inaugurated it on 25th February 1922. The building was occupied by the SIKH and DOGRA troops during 1947. The building presently houses the headquarters of a Corps and presents a majestic look from Grand Trunk Road.
The Cantonment in itself is self-sufficient in marketing facilities and caters to the needs of the population residing here. It has a cantonment Bazar known as Sadar Bazar and two well stocked Canteens/Shopping Centres which meet the day to day requirements of the population. The management of the Sadar Bazar is through Cantonment Board and other institutes are run by the Army for its serving personnel and ex-servicemen.
There are three Kendriya Vidyalayas and one Army School under the management of the Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan and Army. In addition to above, there is one Girls College, One Girls Senior Secondary School and four other Schools and Colleges for boys and girls. There are number of private primary schools within the Cantonment.
Military Dairy Farm
There is a Military Dairy Farm in approximately 650 acres of land. This institute provides dairy products for daily use of the troops and locals.
Jalandhar Cantt Park
An annual flower show is held in this Cantonment from the British period. It is organised by the Cantonment Board with the help of Jalandhar Garrison. It has inspired the residents of the Cantonment as well as Jalandhar City to take greater interest in flower and plants.
The Cantonment is proud of the following additional facilities:-
- An Olympic size Swimming Pool.
- One of the two Flying Clubs of the State viz Northern India Flying Club.
- One of the three golf courses in the State.
- The Jalandhar Club
Jung-e-Azadi Memorial. Kartarpur
The Government of Punjab had conceptualized a mega project named as Punjab Freedom Movement Memorial in commemoration of the unparalleled sacrifices of Indian’s & Punjabi’s for independence of India. The project was aimed at setting up integrated memorial complex for the heroes of the freedom struggle on 25 acres of land in the periphery of Kartarpur. The total estimated project cost is Rs. 315 cr.
The Memorial is aimed at disseminating knowledge about the rich cultural heritage of the State in the minds of youngsters. The site, which falls on the Jalandhar-Amritsar national highway, was carefully selected by the State Government keeping in mind its easy accessibility to visitors and to add another tourist destination for those on way to the Golden Temple. Punjab Freedom Movement Memorial Foundation was formed by Government of Punjab for implementation of this prestigious project.
Design of the Memorial – It has Entrance foyer, Minar, Galleries, Movie Theatre, Auditorium with 250 capacity, Seminar Hall with 150 capacity, Main Icon, Amphitheatre with 500 capacity, Laser Show with 1500 capacity, Food Court & Cafeteria, Landscaping, and Parking.
Headquarters of the Tehsil/Sub Division of the same name Nakodar, falls on the Jalandhar City-Nakodar line and Lohian Khas Nakodar Ludhiana line of the Northern Railways. It is a railway junction ,32 kms from Jalandhar City,47 kms from Ludhiana and 32 kms from Lohian Khas . It is also connected directly by road with Jalandhar(24 kms), Phillaur(34 Kms), Sultanpur(40Kms) and Kapurthala (35 kms). A road also connects Nakodar with Jagraon through a ferry on the River Satluj. There are a Khadi Mandal, a Civil Hospital, a Veterinary Hospital, three Sub-post offices and a combined Post & Telegraph office, a Telephone Exchange, a Police Station and a P.W.D. Rest House. It is well known for the manufacture of durries and khadi goods.
The town is said by one account to have been originally held by Kambohs. Another tradition makes an Afghan, Nakodar Khan, the founder. Another account says that, when Manj Rajputs crossed the Satluj,Malik Nekdar Khan popularly known as Baba Malik, a brother of Rai Izzat who took (Talwan) founded Nakodar. His shrine still exists inside the town. The word Nakodar is a corrupted form of the Persian words neki dar which mean ‘gate of goodness or virtue. A fourth account makes it founded by the Nikudari legion(ming or hazarah) of the Mughals.
Nakodar is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbri as occupied by Main, apparently a mistake for Manj Rajputs, and undoubtedly formed one sub division of their territory. They were ousted early during the Sikh period by Sardar Tara Singh Gheba who buit a fort and made the town the centre of a considerable ilaka. Maharaja Ranjit Singh seized it in 1816. On the introduction of the British rule after the First Anglo-Sikh War 1845-46,a cantonment was located here, which was abolished in 1854. Barkley notes that tradition says Nakodar was founded in the bed of a river, which is not impossible, keeping in view its situation.
Outside the Nakodar town, there are two fine Muhammedan tombs situated close together. These are maintained as protected monuments by the Archaeological Departments. One of these tombs was built in A.D.1612 in the beginning of the reign of Jahangir(A..D.1605-1627 A.D.) and the other in 1657 A.D towards the close of the reign of Shah Jahan (1627-1658 A.D.).
The Tomb of Mohammed Momin was erected over the mortal remains of Ustad Muhammed Momin also known as Ustad Ustad Muhammed Husseini alias Hafizak, a tambura player in the service of Khan-I-Khanan, one of the Mavaratnas in the court of Emperor Akbar in AD 1021 (AD 1612). Standing on an octagonal platform and approached by a flight of steps on two sides, it is square from inside and octagonal on outside. Surmounted by a pinnacle, the hemispherical dome sits over a low cylindrical drum and is relieved by four cupolas. Each of the longer face is pierced by deep recesses while the shorter by half octagonal recesses placed one over the other, all covered by pointed arches. The entrances are on the northern and southern recesses while the other recesses are blocked with pierced tracery screens. The middle portions of the panels on the exterior and the arch spandrels are decorated with geometric design in glazed tile work. The upper and lower panel, framed in lines of red plastered bricks, contain painted designs showing guldastas. Originally within the burial chamber are two elegent sarcophagi of sienna coloured marble inlaid with white marble inscription , which are now lost.
Tomb of Haji Jamal is close to the tomb of Muhammed Momin. This tomb was raised over the mortal remains of Haji Jamal, a pupil of Ustad Muhammed Husseini, the tambura player, towards the close of Emperor Shah Jahan?s regin. The two lined inscription engraved on the entrance gate of the tomb refers to its bing the tomb of Haji Jamal and gives a date of AH 1067 ( AD 1657). It stands in the middle of the square platform, paneled on all sides with deep recesses concealing two flight of steps on each side. Each of the four faces have octagonal recesses covered by pointed archs. The southern one gives access to the burial chamber while the remaining ones are closed with pierced tracery screens. Its inner chamber is octagonal where as the outer plan is square having octagonal turrets surmounted with domed cupolas added to the corners. A bulbous dome crowned with pinnacle sits over a high drum and is balanced by the four cupolas crowning the turrets at the cornor. The façade is divided into red stucco covered brick framed panels and painted with white lines. The larger panels are filled with flower pots and the smaller with geometrical designs. The broad belts between the panels are ornamented with diper designs in tiles of different colours. The octagonal towers and the battlements as well as the pinnacles of the domes are ornamented with glazed tiles. (Notification no. 4687 dated 18-02-1919 Archaeological Survey of India, Chandigarh Circle)
On the west of the tombs is a gateway said to have been built in A.D.1667. There is another smaller gateway on the east, now in ruins. To the north is a tank, the bricks of which were largely used in the building of Nakodar Cantonment, on one side of it is a summer house, now used as the Sub-Judge-cum-Judicial Magistrate’s Court. Beyond the tank is Baradari containing the shrine of Bahadur Khan who died during the reign of Jahangir, and also an old mosque which is now in a dilapidated condition.
Dakhni sarai is one of the finest and best preserved specimens of mughal caravan sarais built along the old highway. It stand in the village Dakhni (31.10′ N; 75.25′ E) on the Nakodar- Kapurthala road, about 12 km from Nakodar. The sarai is said to have been built by the well known Mughal noble Ali Mardan Khan during the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan about AD 1640. It comprises of one hundred & twenty four cells around a closed quadrangle with two imposing gateway in the centre of the eastern and western quadrangle. Inside the quadrangle is a mosque and a well. The half dome portal of which is decorated with glazed tiles while its interior contains painted motifs over lime plaster. The wall closing the sarai on the outside at the four corners are strengthened by circular bastion. The three storyed facade of the gateway shows recesses and openings on either side, the smaller one being closed with finely pierced tracery screens in red sandstone. The gateway projecting out of the wall is strengthened with octagonal towers, crowned with domical cupolas. The arch spandrels and panels framing the central arch and side openings are decorated with glazed tile-work showing geometrical and floral designs. (Notification no. 4687 dated 18-02-1919 Archaeological Survey of India, Chandigarh Circle)
The Mughal Bridge is to the south of the village Mahlian Kalan on Nakodar- Kapurthala road, obout 12 km from Nakodar. This is one of the extant Mughal bridge built during the reign of Shah Jahan (AD 1627-1658 ) . The bridge spanned the Dhauli-veni river to the east of the Dakhni Sarai. It is of Lakhauri bricks and has five arched spans, the central begin the highest and other four in receding order. ( Notification no. PN, 16721 dated 04-06-1923 Archaeological Survey of India, Chandigarh Circle)
Nurmahal (31 06?N 75 36? E) is a small town situated on the Lohian Khas-Nakodar -Ludhiana line of the Northern Railways, Nurmahal is 20 km from Phillaur, the Tehsil/Sub Division headquarters and 13 km from Nakodar. It is also connected with Phillaur and Nakodar by road which runs parallel to the railway line. The town is also directly connected by road with Jalandhar (33 km), the district headquarters. It is a class II municipality.
Lying on the old imperial road from Delhi to Lahore. Nurmahal is built on the site of an ancient town, as is testified by the large size of bricks that have been dug up as well as by numerous coins found there. Sir Alexander Cunningham obtained one punch marked silver coin, one copper piece of the satrap Rajubul, and one of Mahilpul of Delhi. The bricks are finger marked by three concentric semi-circles with a dot in the centre. Nurmahal is said to have been built on the site of a town, called Kot Kalur or Kot Kahlur, which, according to Barkley, was a place of importance and is said to have been ruined about A.D.1300 “by the oppression of the government of the day, the Hindus deserting it, and separate villages of Muhammedans taking the place of the old mohallas(wards)”. But Cunningham thinks that this in an error due to misreading of the words ba-khitah phalor in the inscription over the western gate way of the serai.
The modern town is due to the fostering of Nur Jahan (after whom it is named), the consort of Emperor Jahangir(1605-1627 A.D) and who is said to have been brought up here. She had the imperial serai constructed by Nawab Zakariya Khan Governor of the Doab between 1619 and 1621 A.D and settled numerous families in her new town. In 1738-1739 Nadir Shah exacted a ransom of three lakhs of rupees” from Nurmahal, which seriously injured its prosperity. “In 1756-1757 Ahmad Shah demanded a like sum and the people being unable to pay he ordered them to be slaughtered and plundered, and burnt the town”. Almost immediately afterwards the Punjab independent of Delhi and Nurmahal was seized by the Ahluwalia Sikhs and was held for the Kapurthala Chief by Sirdar Kaur Singh and his descendants. It would seem as if before this the Talwan Rujputs had taken possession of the town. They subsequently on the final invasion of Ahmad Shah recovered the serai. The west gateway of this building was restored at public expense during the British rule towards the close of the nineteenth century.
The sarai is remarkable specimen of oriental architecture. The serai is maintained as a protected monument by the Archaeological Department. This closed quadrangle consists of one hundred forty cells on all over the four sides, two gateway placed in the central of the eastern and western wings. and double storeyed pavilions in the centre of the northern and southern wings, two storied octagonal tower having three cells on the basement at the corners; a well and a mosque with in the quadrangle. of the two gateways, the eastern on is simple while the western one is ornamented. The gateway comprising guard rooms on either side of a central passage and projecting out has casing of red sandstone. The sliced outer angles are relieved with arch recesses placed one over other. The whole facade is divided in to panels, ornamented with sculptures in bas-relief and foliated scroll work with birds sitting in branches. The arched opening of the entrance is encased with in a bigger arch and its spandrels being decorated with lotus medalions. on either side of the spandrels are placed projecting domed balconies supported on four pillars topped with carved brackets. The space in between the pillars is closed with low stone railings showing fine pierced tracery work. To the corner of the gates are added guldastas which rise above the battelments of the tarrace. (Notification no. 4687 dated 18.02.1919 Archaeological Survey of India, Chandigarh Circle)
Headquarters of Tehsil/Sub Division of the same name, Phillaur is a Railway junction on the Mughal Sarai-Saharanpur -Amritsar main line(14Km from Ludhiana and 43 Km from Jalandhar) and the Ludhiana-Nakodar-Lohian khas branch line (33 Km from Nakodar ). It is also situated on the Grand Trunk Road, on the north bank of the River Satluj, 14 Km from Ludhiana and 47 Km from Jalandhar. The railway main line and the Grand Trunk Road from Ludhiana to Jalandhar run parallel to each other. Phillaur is also connected by road with Nawanshahr (45 Km) and Nakodar (34 km). It is class II municipality.
Phillaur owes its origin to a Sanghera Jat, Phul, who called the town after himself “Phulnagar”. Subsequently the Naru Rajputs, under Rai Shahr, whose territory extended from Mau Selkiana, occupied it and when his son Rai Rattan Pal abandoned Mau and settled at Phillaur, the jats left. The Rajputs also, at some period unknown, deserted the place. The modern town dates from the time of Shah Jahan(1627-1658 AD) at which time the site ,then covered with ruins, was re-occupied, having been selected for the erection of a serai on the Imperial line of road from Delhi to Lahore. Of its earlier history nothing of interest is recorded. On the rise of the Sikhs to power, the place was seized by one Sudh Singh ,Kakarah, who made it the capital of a considerable estate. The family became extinct in 1807 and the place then fell into the hands of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who recognised its importance as a frontier town commanding the most frequented ferry of the Satluj.
Under his Governor Mokham Chand, a strong force of troops was usually stationed at Phillaur and between 1809 and 1812 the Serai was converted into a fort by the addition of a fausse-braye ditch and bastion, in consequence of the British occupation of Ludhiana. The architect is said to have been an Italian Engineer. In 1846, when the Sikh garrison was withdrawn after the battle of Aliwal(January 28,1846),Chaudhri Kutb-ud-din of Phillaur secured the keys of the fort, preserved it from plunder,and gave it up to Colonel Machkeson and Brigadier Wheeler when the British troops entered the Doab. The Chaudhri was granted a pension of rupees 300 PA for his services. In the same year after the battle of Aliwal a British Cantonment was formed in the neighbourhood of the fort which continued to be occupied by native troops until 1857,when the detachment stationed there rebelled. The fort itself became an important artillery arsenal and magazine. The cantonment was not re-occupied after the great uprising. The artillery land magazine were withdrawn in 1863 from the fort and a detachment of Native Infantry left as garrison. In 1891 this was withdrawn and the fort was handed over to the Police Department and it is now occupied by the Police Training College(formerly Police Training School, established on January 1,1892 ,it was raised to a College in April 1967) and the Finger Print Bureau (established in August,1894). The former is the biggest and the oldest institution of its type in the country. It imparts police training to Police officers/officials of Punjab, other states and countries.
Ancient site ( Theh Ghatti), Nagar (Jalandhar)
The village Nagar ( 31″ 05′ N, 77″ 50’E) is situated about 9 km north-east of phillaur with a threefold sequence of culture. Period 1 is represented by the painted Grey ware with sprinkling of the late Harappa sturdy red ware. Semi-circular huts and two ovel structures of burnt earth, probably of religious nature, have been noticed. copper objects, bone styli, terracotta ear-ornaments and animal figures, besides beads and bangles, have been found. Period II has the typical Kushan pottery, terracottas and coins. A terracotta seal reads ” sri-mahasenapati -Ramaguptasya’ in characters of third century is an important discovery. In period III there was a prosperous mediival occupation. (Notification of 1954 dated 02.01.1954 Archaeological Survey of India, Chandigarh Circle)
Ancient site, Katpalon (Jalandhar)
The ancient site in the village Katpalon (31′ 05′ N; 75′ 52′ E) about 7 km east of phillaur and it was excavated by the survey in 1976-77. In period I the painted Grey ware was found interlocked with the late Harappan pottery. Copper antimony road and terracotta beads and wheela are the other main finds. This was followed after a break by period II, kushna. In period III, medieval, the strata are much disturbed by pits. ( Notification no. 4/7/67-CA/(1) dated 05.03.1968 Archaeological Survey of India, Chandigarh Circle)
A Sarvodya Mela is held on the right bank of the River Satluj on 12th February every year to commemorate the immersion ceremony of Mahatama Gandhi’s ashes.